A puncture strength test is performed simply to determine resistance something is to being punctured. Performing a puncture test on a universal testing machine (tensile / compression tester) is a highly accurate and repeatable method.
ADMET eXpert 2611 set up for Puncture Test
Any material (films, textiles, elastomers) that have an end use where puncture resistance is an important design characteristic are all tested with this type of setup. The actual test method should mimic the end use of the designed product. For example, if you were a manufacturer of leather work gloves, you may need to perform a test where a Phillips screwdriver head shaped probe punctures a rigidly held piece of leather work glove. If you are a designer of rock climbing apparel you may want to know how your textile performs when coming into contact with sharp rock points.
For more structured testing, there are many different ASTM and ISO specifications that describe different types of puncture tests. Most of these specifications are similar with the main differences being the shape of the puncture probe, the size of the sample that will be punctured and the rate of speed of the puncture.
Parts of the puncture test setup:
Universal testing machine: This machine applies the force to the specimen to create the puncture and measures force and distance of the puncture probe. It then displays the puncture resistance and distance to puncture results on a display or computer test report. A typical UTM will have puncture speeds of 0.001” per minute up to 40” per minute. Some tests require much faster speeds which can easily be accommodated by a customization of an off the shelf UTM.
Puncture fixture: This fixture gets fitted into the universal testing machine. The bottom part is designed to hold the specimen being punctured. The upper part is the puncture probe which is secured to the load cell and upper crosshead which moves down to create the puncture.
Close up of Puncture Fixture
ADMET eXpert 7601 with ADMET eP2 Digital Controller