What is Tensile Testing?

Tensile tests are used to determine how materials will behave under tension load. In a simple tensile test, a sample is typically pulled to its breaking point to determine the ultimate tensile strength of the material. The amount of force (F) applied to the sample and the elongation (∆L) of the sample are measured throughout the test. Material properties are often expressed in terms of stress (force per unit area, σ) and strain (percent change in length, ε). To obtain stress, the force measurements are divided by the sample’s cross sectional area (σ = F/A). Strain measurements are obtained by dividing the change in length by the initial length of the sample (ε = ∆L/L). These values are then presented on an XY plot called a stress-strain curve. Testing and measuring procedures vary based on the material being tested and its intended application.

ADMET material testing systems perform accurate and reliable tension tests / tensile tests. Our systems are ideal for measuring the tensile properties of metals, plastics, textiles, adhesives, medical devices and many other products and components. As they pull materials apart, ADMET testing machines accurately calculate mechanical properties such as tensile strength, peak load, elongation, tensile modulus, and yield.

Additional Reading:

Let ADMET solve your Tension Testing / Tensile Testing Needs!

Engineering and Support Team Members

ADMET’s Technical Support and Engineering teams will help you get the most value out of your testing machine. All ADMET machines come with lifetime application support so you can rely on our decades of experience when setting up a new test. If you have an unusual test application, our engineering team will work with you to design a custom testing machine that fits your unique needs. It’s our goal to help you meet your material testing challenges as easily as possible.

eXpert 2600 ASTM D412 Tensile TestingWhy is tensile testing important?

Tensile testing is critical for selecting appropriate materials during research and development. Tensile testing can also be used to verify that materials adhere to minimum strength and elongation requirements.

From suspension bridge cables to safety harnesses, lives may depend on the quality of your materials and products so conducting accurate and reliable tensile tests is an absolute necessity.

Consequences of not adhering to high standards can be severe both in monetary and human costs. Usage of improper materials may result in destruction of property and significant loss of life. The costs of disasters brought about by utilizing substandard materials usually far exceed the costs of carrying out regular tensile testing.

Core Concepts of Tensile Testing

The following section will address key ideas related to tensile testing. All software output screens are from an ADMET MTESTQuattro-equipped tensile tester.

Stress and Strain

These are basic dimensions of material science. Stress is the amount of force per unit cross sectional area. Strain is the ratio of the change in length to the original length, sometimes expressed as a percent. Tensile tests use plots of stress vs strain to display results.

Stress Strain Curve on MTESTQuattro equipped tensile tester

Elastic Deformation

Elastic deformation is the region on the stress-strain curve where deformation can be reversed by removing stress. It is also the region where stress is mostly proportional to strain. It can be identified on a stress-strain curve as the initial linear section of the graph.

Young’s Modulus

Young’s modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is the constant which relates the proportion of stress (σ) to strain (ε) under elastic deformation. On a stress-strain curve, it is the initial slope of the linear region of the graph.