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ASTM E8 | Metal | Tensile Testing

ASTM E8 describes tensile testing of metals such as steel or metal alloys. This test determines important mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area. E8 tensile tests determine the ductility and strength of various metals when the materials undergo uniaxial tensile stresses. Such information is important for alloy development, design, quality control, and comparison of different sets of metals.

An electro-mechanical or hydraulic universal testing machine equipped with the appropriate specimen grips, an extensometer and software capable of strain rate control and recording stress – strain data is necessary to conduct this test. If you need to conduct tensile tests according to ASTM E8, please read the entire specification from the relevant ASTM publication.

ASTM E8 | Metal | Tensile Testing

  1. Measure and record the specimen dimensions necessary to determine the cross sectional area at its smallest point. The original cross sectional area is used for all engineering stress calculations.
  2. Use ink and a scribe or punch to place gage marks on the test specimen at the appropriate gage length. The distance between the gage marks after the specimen is broken is used to determine the percent elongation at break. Note: To accurately compare elongation values between tests, the gage lengths must be the same.
  3. Zero the testing machine without the specimen inserted in the grips. Then install the specimen in the grips and start loading the sample. The speed of testing is generally specified in one of three manners: a) the rate of straining of the specimen; b) the rate of stressing of the specimen; or c) the rate of separation of the crossheads. In addition, the test rate is to remain constant through yield but can then be increased when determining ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break. See the ASTM E8 specification for more details.
  4. Run the test until specimen failure or fracture. Remove the broken sample from the machine and fit the fractured ends together. Measure the distance between the gage marks to the nearest 0.05 millimeters.
Calculations:
  • Ultimate Tensile Strength or Peak Stress
  • Yield Strength by Offset or Extension Under Load Method
  • Percent Elongation at Break (includes plastic deformations only)
  • Reduction of Area
  • Yield Point Elongation (YPE)
  • Elongation at Fracture (includes elastic and plastic deformations)

For a full video of setting up ASTM E8 with MTESTQuattro, watch this video.

ASTM E8 | Metal | Tensile Testing

ASTM E8 | Metal | Tensile Testing

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